Micronutrient and Antinutritional Content of Weaning Food Produced from Blends of Millet, Soya Beans and Moringa Oleifera Leaf Flour


  •   Jane Hembadoon Gwer

  •   Bibiana Dooshima Igbabul

  •   Simon Terver Ubwa


Any Weaning food offered to infants should be rich in micronutrients and high in protein quality. The study assessed the Mineral, Vitamin A and C, Amino acids and Antinutritional profile of weaning food blends from millet flour (MLF), soya beans flour (SBF) and moringa oleifera leaf flour (MLF) in the ratio FMF:SBF:MLF- sample C (60:35:5), sample D (60:30:10), sample E (60:25:5), sample F (60:20:20) sample A (100 % FMF) was used as control, sample B (FMF(60):SBF(40). All analyses were done using standard methods. The Mineral, Vitamin A, C and Amino acid Tryptophan contents of the weaning food formulations significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased MLF Percentage. The Mineral values ranged from 57.37 to 466.87 mg/100g, 11.33 to 107.30 mg/100g, 36.27 to 62.38 mg/100g, 2.45 to 4.77 mg/100g and 76.64 to 178.09 mg/100g for calcium, iron, potassium, zinc and sodium respectively. Vitamins A (ß-Carotene) and C ranged from 0-5.25 and 0.58-3.89 mg/100g respectively. Tryptophan ranged from 1.16-2.40 g/100g protein. Manganese, Lysine, methionine was significantly (p<0.05) higher in MLF unsubstituted sample B. The anti-nutrients analyzed were significantly (p<0.05) low with values ranging from (0.09 to 0.43) mg/100 g, (0.13 to 1.49) mg/100 g, (0.33 to 0.95) mg/100 g and (0.03 to 0.07) mg/100 g for phytates, tannins, oxalates and trypsin inhibitor respectively.

Keywords: Amino acids, Antinutrients, Micronutrients, Weaning Food.


U. Ismaila, A.S. Gana, N. M. Tswanya and D. Dogara D. Cereals Production in Nigeria: Problems Constraints and Opportunities for Betterment. African Journal of Agriculture, vol. 5, issue 12, pp. 1341-1350, June 2010.

Y. Tehseen, Y. Ammara, N. Zahida, U. Shumaila, A. Sakhawat and S. P Anela shamshad. Development and Formulation of Ready to Eat Baby Food from Cereals. Journal of Food Sciences, vol 24 issue 3, pp. 121-125, 2014.

F. Shahidi and A. Chandrasekara. Millets Grain Phenolics and their role in Disease Risk Reduction and Health Promotion: A review. Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 5, pp. 570-581, 2013.

E. A Bonsi, W.A Plahar and R. Zabawa. Nutritional Enhancement of Ghanaian Weaning Foods using the Orange Flesh Sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas). African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, vol. 14, issue 5, pp. 2036-2056, August 2014.

A. B Obilana and E. Manyasa. Millets. In: Pseudo Cereals and Less Common Cereals: Grain properties and Utilization Potential. PS Belton & JRN Taylor (Eds.).Springer-Verlag: New York 2002, PP. 177-217.

J. Henkel (2000).” Soy Health Claims for Soy Protein Question for Soy Protein. Question About Other Components”. FDA Consumer (Food and Drug Administration) 34(3): 18-20 PMID 11521249.

T. S. Anjorin, P. Ikokoh and S. Okolo and T. Anjorin. Mineral composition of Moringa oleifera leaves, pods and seeds from two regions in Abuja, Nigeria, International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 12, issue 3, pp. 431-434, 2010.

S. M. Wakil, M. O. Kazeem. Quality assessment of Weaning Food Produced from Fermented Cereal-Legume Blends using Starters. International Food Research Journal, vol. 19, issue 4, pp. 1679-1685, March 2012.

S. Villapando. Feeding Mode, Infections and Anthropometric Status in Early Childhood. Pediatrics, vol 106, issue 5, pp. 1282-1283 December 2000.

WHO Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. WH/A55/2002/REC/1 Annex 2, Geneva 2002.

National population commission. Administrative unit: Benue State 2015.

V. N. Enujiugha. Supplementation of Ogi, a Maize-Based Infant Weaning Food, with African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 202-211, December 2006.

S. Mariam. Nutritive Value of Three Potential Complementary Foods Based on Cereals and Legumes. African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-14, 2005.

D. Shiriki, M.A. Igyor and D. I Gernah. Nutritional Evaluation of Complementary Food Formulations from Maize, Soybean and Peanut Fortified with Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 6 no. 5, pp. 494-500, January 2015.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edition. Association of Official; Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 2012.

R. R. Alexander, J. M. Griffiths. Basic Biochemical Methods 2, 2nd edition. John Willey and Sons Publications Inc. New York, 1993, pp. 353.

I. Mohammed, A. Hassan and Y. Hazim. Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Contents in Various Fruit and Vegetable by UV-Spectrophotometry and Titration Methods. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences; vol. 9, issue 4, pp. 2972-2974, Jamuary 2016.

H. Kaspar, K. Dettmer and W. Gronwald Advances in amino acid analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem, vol. 393, pp. 445–452, 2009.

P. S. Margit and M. P. Ibolya. Determination of Tryptophan in Unhydrolysed Food and Feedstuffs by Acid Ninhydrin Method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 38, pp. 720-726, 1990.

G. I. Onwuka. Food Analysis and Instrumentation Theory and Practice. Naphthali Prints. Lagos, Nigeria 2005, pp. 114-119.

M. Kakade, N. Simons and I. E. Liener. Determination of Trypsin Inhibitors Activity of Soybean Products. A Collaborative Analysis of an Improved Procedure. Cereal Chemistry, vol. 51, pp. 376-382, 1974.

D. Shiriki, M. A. Igyor and D. I. Gernah. Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder Supplementation on the Micronutrient and Toxicant Contents of Maize – Soybean – Peanut Complementary Food Formulations. International Journal of Food Processing Technology, vol. 1, issue 2, pp.7-12, October 2014.

V. F. Abioye and M. O. Aka. Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Moringa Fortified Maize-Ogi. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences vol. 12, issue 1, pp. 1-4, 2015.

SON. Standards of foods for infant and young children-infant formula. Standards Organization of Nigeria, Abuja. NIS, 2010; pp. 255-256.

E. N. Whitney, E. M. N. Hamilton and S. R. Rolfes. Understanding Nutrition, 5th edn. New York: West Publishing Company, 1990.

H. Richard and E. Ines. Iron Bioavailability and Dietary Reference Values. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, issue 5, pp. 1461S-1467S, May 2010.

N. Abbaspour, R, Hurrel and R. Kelishadi. Review on Irons and Its Importance for Human Health. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 19, issue 2, pp. 164-174, 2014.

WHO. Facts for Feeding: Guidelines for Appropriate Complementary Feeding of Breastfed Children 6-24 Months of Age. Washington, 2004

C. Parul and W. Keith W. Interactions between Zinc and Vitamin A. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 68, issue 2, pp. 435-441, August 1998.

A. Azhari, N. Mohammed, A. E. Mohamed and M. Ibrahim. Effect of Supplementation with Moringa Leaves Powder (MLP) and Fermentation on Chemical Composition, Total Minerals Contents and Sensory Characteristics of Sorghum Flour. International Journal of Science and Research, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 672-677, March 2016.

M. W. Gordon. Perspectives in Nutrition, 4th edition. Mc Graw Hill, N. Y, 1999, pp. 75-372.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium Phosphorus,Magnesium, Vitamin D and Flouride.Washington, DC: National Academy Press 1997.

K. Netshiheni, M. Mashau and A. Jideani. Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Instant Maize Porridge Fortified with Moringa oleifera Leaves and Termite (Macrotermes falciger) Powders; Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, vol. 49, issue 4, pp. 654-667, July 2019.

M. Aslam, F. Anwar, R. Nadeem, U. Rashid, T. G. Kazi and M. Nadeem. Mineral Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaves and Pods from Different Regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Asian Journal of Plant Science, vol. 4, pp. 417-421, 2005.

WHO. Feeding and Nutrition of Infants Young Children WHO Regional Publications, European series No 87, 2000.

M. B. Reddy and M. Love. The Impact of Food Processing on the Nutritional Quality of Vitamins and Minerals. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 45, pp. 99-106, 1999.

F. M. Shar, B.D Igbabul, J. Ikya and N. Dabels. Quality Evaluation of Soy- mumu Supplemented with Moringa Leaf Powder. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 4, issue 5, pp. 131-135, October 2016.

K. K. Kayi. A Study on Moringa Oleifera Leaves as a Supplement to West African Weaning Foods. A Research Submitted to Hamburgh University of Applied Science 2013.

M. Glover-Amengor, A. Richmond, A. Edwin and N. Alexander. Micronutrient Composition and Acceptability of Moringa oleifera Leaf‐Fortified Dishes by Children in Ada‐East district, Ghana. Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 317–323, July 2016.

E. Egwin, M. Amanabo, A. Yahaya and M. Bello. Nigerian Indigenous Fermented Foods Processes and Prospects. Mycotoxins and Food Safety in Developing Countries, pp. 153-180, 2013.

World Health Organization. Infant and Young Child Feeding: Model Chapter for Textbooks for Medical Students and Allied Health Professionals. Geneva: WHO Press, 2009.

A. A .Motuma, L. Azeb, and G. Bekesho. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – Lessons from Ethiopia. Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 3, issue 41, 2016.

D. I. Gernah, C. C. Ariahu and E. K. Ingbian. Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Food Formulations from Malted and Fermented Maize (Zea Mays L.) Fortified with Defatted Sesame (Sesamun Indicum L.) Flour. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 6614-6631, 2012.

Y. Bundit and M. Toshiro. Replacing Moringa Partially by Protein Replacement in Soybean Meal of Fancy Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 34, issue 5, pp. 479-485, September 2012.

D. Chéreau, V. Pauline, R. Cécile, P. Lisa, M. Jean-Charles, B. Saliha, V. Jorge and L. Michel. Combination of Existing and Alternative Technologies to Promote Oilseeds and Pulses Proteins in Food Applications. EDP Sciences, vol. 23, issue 4, D406, 2016.

S. O. Osunbitan, K. A. Taiwo and S. O. Gbadamosi. Effects of Different Processing Methods on the Antinutrient Contents in Two Improved Varieties of Cowpea. American Journal of Research Communication, vol. 3, issue 4, pp. 74-87, 2015.

O. Omueti, B. Otegbayo, O. Jaiyeoba and O. Afolabi. Functional Properties of Complementary Diets Developed from Soybean (Glycine Max), Groundnut (Macrobrachium SPP). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry; vol. 8, issue 8, pp. 563-573, 2016.

K. B. Dachana, R. D. Jyotsna and J. P. Indrani. Effect of Dried (Moringa Oleifera Lam) Leaves on Rheological, Microstructural, Nutritional, Textural and Organoleptic Characteristics of Cookies. Journal of Food Quality; vol. 3, issue 5, pp. 660-677, 2010.

T. O Ewulo, I. B Oluwalana, B. S.Ewulo and O. O Awolu. (Enrichment of Traditional Maize Snack (Kokoro) with Moringa (Moringa Oliefera) Leaf and Soybean, African journal of food science, vol 11, issue 5, pp. 149-145, May 2017.

P. Siddhuraju and K. Becker (2001). Effect of Various Domestic Processing Methods on Antinutrients and In Vitro Protein and Starch Digestibility of Two Indigenous Varieties of Indian Tribal Pulse, Mucuna Pruriens Var. Utilis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, issue 6, pp. 58-67, June 2001.

N. Reyes–Sanchez, E. Sporndly and I. Ledin. Effects of Feeding Different Levels of Foliage from Moringa Oleifera to Creole Dairy Cows on Intake, Digestibility, Milk Production and Composition. Livestock Science 101, issues13, pp. 24-31, May 2006.

J. RoosNanna, C. Sørensen, H. Sørensen, K. R. Søren, I. K. Zafar, A. Kafeel, Z. Asma, B. Humayan, H.Abrar, H Zile, A. S.Hazoor, Muhammad S, Ghulam H, Ijaz RN, Nudrat AA, Muhammad A, Fahim A, M. Irfan, T Vicenzo, F. Mariano and C. Eugenio. Assessment of Poisonous and Anti-Nutritional Compounds in Wild Edible Forages Consumed by Ruminant Species. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 8, issue 3, pp. 91-101, March 2015.


How to Cite
Gwer, J. H., Igbabul, B. D., & Ubwa, S. T. (2020). Micronutrient and Antinutritional Content of Weaning Food Produced from Blends of Millet, Soya Beans and Moringa Oleifera Leaf Flour. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(5). https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2020.2.5.88