Breeding Soundness Inspection and Production Features of Bullocks under Ecological Conditions in Free State Region, South Africa


  •   G. Zuma-Netshiukhwi

  •   T. Netshilema

  •   N. B. Nongovhela


Assessing the fertility of bullocks preceding to use as breeding animals make apparent economic if it were possible. Fertility is not possible predicted by means of a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE), but by the application of minimum standards to a set of accepted procedures, which supports informed decision makers to the breeding potential of the bullock. An bullocks found to satisfy these criteria in Central Performance Testing (CPT) known as Phase C, is reckoned to be breeding sound (BS). Furthermore, breeding success depends on the reproductive performance of both the cow and the bull. Breeding bull is likely to service a large number of heifers or cows in planned breeding season. The efficiency of a bullock can be based on the average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) but poor breeding sound evaluation can be regarded as infertile. Bull breeding soundness evaluations (BSEs) are significant economic management of beef herd management and depends on adequate semen quality, physical soundness and serving capacity. Furthermore, assessment of scrotal circumference (SC), libido, testicular measurement and semen parameters often not done during a routine breeding soundness examination. The aim of this study was to depict using BSE whether bullocks would be fertile under Phase C. The relationship of BSE and production characteristics in central performance testing is challenging to identify fertility in bullocks within 112 given days of CPT. This study investigated performance data extracted from Integrated Registration and Genetic Information System (Intergis) managed by Agricultural Research Council Glen Bull Testing Centre. There were three breeds investigated, namely, Simmentaler, Santa Gertrudis and Limousin for the period of 2007 to 2017, were analysed to determine the dominance and importance of factors affecting breeding soundness classification.

Keywords: bullocks, breeding soundness, environmental conditions. Reproductive performance


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How to Cite
Zuma-Netshiukhwi, G., Netshilema, T., & Nongovhela, N. B. (2022). Breeding Soundness Inspection and Production Features of Bullocks under Ecological Conditions in Free State Region, South Africa. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 4(1), 39–46.