Chicken eggs are a major component of people’s diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 103 eggs per person in Bangladesh. Eggs act as an important carrier of food-borne pathogen worldwide. The study was conducted to identify the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp., in eggs isolated from farms and different markets of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. A total of 60 eggs were collected randomly between April to December 2019. The isolation and identification of bacterial pathogen was done in accordance with standard procedures. The bacterial isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing against seven commonly used antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. An overall prevalence of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were found to be 35.0%, 28.33%, and 23.33%, respectively. E. coli were found highly resistant to penicillin (100%), tetracycline (80.95%), ampicillin (100%), and erythromycin (85.71%) and were sensitive to amoxicillin (71.42%), ciprofloxacin (85.71%), and gentamicin (95.23%). Salmonella spp. was highly resistant to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (82.35%) and tetracycline (82.35%), and was sensitive to gentamicin (94.11%), amoxicillin (76.47%) and ciprofloxacin (70.58%). Staphylococcus spp. was resistant to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (78.57%), tetracycline (85.71%), amoxicillin (100%), and ampicillin (100%) but sensitive to ciprofloxacin (85.71%), and gentamicin (92.85%). The higher prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria can easily enter the food chain, which poses a public health threat.
FAO, “the state of food security and nutrition in the world 2018: building climate resilience for food security and nutrition”, 2018.
D. Stępień-Pyśniak, “Occurrence of Gram-negative bacteria in hen’s eggs depending on their source and storage conditions,” Pol. J. Vet. Sci., Vol. 13, pp. 507-513, Jan. 2010.
M. J. Hossain, M. S. Islam, M. A. Sobur, S. B. Zaman, A. Nahar, M. Rahman, M. T. Rahman, “Exploring Poultry Farm Environment for Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. Having Public Health Significance,” J Bangladesh Agril Univ, Vol. 18, pp. 615–622, Sep 2020.
M. H. Haque, S. Sarker, M. S. Islam, et al., “Sustainable Antibiotic-Free Broiler Meat Production: Current Trends, Challenges, and Possibilities in a Developing Country Perspective,” Biology (Basel), Vol. 9, pp. 411, Nov 2020.
S. Schwarz, A. Loeffler, K. Kadlec, “Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents and its impact on veterinary and human medicine,” Vet Dermatol., Vol. 28, pp. 82-e19, Feb 2017.
G. M. Boovaragamoorthy, M. Anbazhagan, P. Piruthiviraj, A. Pugazhendhi, S. S. Kumar, et al., “Clinically important microbial diversity and its antibiotic resistance pattern towards various drugs,” J Infect Public Health, Vol. 12, pp. 783-788, Dec 2019.
K Clifford, D. Darash, C. P. da Costa, H. Meyer, M. T. Islam, et al., “The threat of antimicrobial resistance opportunities for a technology-integrated One Health approach,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 96, pp. 662-664, 2018.
B. Aslam, W. Wang, M. I. Arshad, et al., “Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis,” Infect Drug Resist., Vol. 11, pp. 1645-1658, Oct 2018.
F. Prestinaci, P. Pezzotti A. Pantosti, “Antimicrobial resistance: a global multifaceted phenomenon,” Pathog Glob Health, Vol.109, pp. 309-318, Sep 2015.
B. Li, and T. J. Webster, “Bacteria antibiotic resistance: New challenges and opportunities for implant-associated orthopedic infections,” J Orthop Res., Vol. 36, pp. 22-32, Jan 2018.
S. Thanner, D. Drissner, and F. Walsh, “Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture,” mBio., Vol. 7, pp. e02227-15, Apr 2016.
V. V. Saharan, P. Verma, A.P. Singh, “Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance in poultry sector of India,” J Food Saf, Vol. 40, pp. e12742, Dec 2019.
Q. Chang, W. Wang, G. Regev-Yochay, M. Lipsitch, W. P. Hanage, “Antibiotics in agriculture and the risk to human health: how worried should we be?” Evol Appl., Vol. 8, pp.240-247, Mar 2015.
Y. B. Kim, M. Y. Yoon, J. S. Ha, K. W. Seo, E. B. Noh, et al., “Molecular characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from broiler chickens with colibacillosis,” Poult Sci., Vol. 99, pp. 1088-1095, Feb 2020.
M. T. Rahman, M. A. Sobur, M. S. Islam, S. Ievy, M. J. Hossain, et al., “Zoonotic Diseases: Etiology, Impact, and Control,” Microorganisms, Vol. 8, pp. 1405, Sep 2020.
O. Tenaillon, D. Skurnik, B. Picard, E. Denamur, “The population genetics of commensal Escherichia coli,” Nat Rev Microbiol., Vol. 8, pp. 207-217, Mar 2010.
M. Mellata, “Human and Avian Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections, Zoonotic Risks, and Antibiotic Resistance Trends,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, Vol.11, pp. 916-932, Oct 2013.
G. Abdukhalilova, L. Kaftyreva, J. A. Wagenaar, B. Tangyarikov, A. Bektimirov, I. Akhmedov, et al., “Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and Campylobacter in humans and broiler chicken in Uzbekistan,” Public Health Panorama, Vol. 2, pp. 340-347, 2016.
C. Varga, M.T. Guerin, M .L. Brash, et al., “Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates: a two-year prospective study of small poultry flocks in Ontario, Canada,” BMC Vet Res, Vol. 15, pp. 464, Dec. 2019.
I. S. Shanta, M. A. Hasnat, N. Zeidner, E. S. Gurley, E. Azziz‐Baumgartner, et al., “Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh: financial and nutritional benefits, but persistent risky practices,” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Vol. 64, pp. 1454-1464, June 2017.
D. V. T. Nair, K. Venkitanarayanan, A. Kollanoor Johny, “Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control,” Foods, Vol. 7, pp. 167, June 2018.
H. Al-Talib, H. Hasan, C. Y. Yean, S. M. Al-Ashwal, M. Ravichandran, “Fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus: a case report,” Jpn J Infect Dis., Vol, 64, pp. 58-60, 2011.
S. A. Mamza, G. O. Egwu, and G. D. Mshelia, “Beta-lactamase Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chickens in Nigeria,” Veterinary Italian Journal, Vol. 46, pp. 155-165, 2010.
P. D. Stapleton, and P. W. Taylor, “Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus,” Science Progress, Vol. 85, pp. 57-72, Feb 2002.
M. Cheesbrough, “District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries (2nd Edition),” English Language Book Society, London 2006, pp. 100-194.
I. A. Merchant and R. A. Packer, “Veterinary Bacteriology and Virology,” 7th edn. TheIowa University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 1967. pp. 286-306.
W. Bauer, W. M. M. Kirby, J. Sheris and M. Truck, “Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method,” American J. Clin. Phath., Vol. 145, pp. 225-230, 1966.
E. Pyzik, A. Marek, “Plasmid profile analysis and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from table chicken eggs,” Pol J Vet Sci., Vol. 16, pp. 307-312, 2013.
A. Khan, R. Rind, M. Shoaib, A. A. Kamboh, G. A. Mughal, “Isolation, identification and antibiogram of Escherichia coli from table eggs,” J. Anim. Health Prod., Vol. 4, pp. 1-5, Dec 2016.
A. Parveen, M. M. Rahman, M. Fakhruzzaman, M. Akter, and M. S. Islam, “Characterization of bacterial pathogens from egg shell, egg yolk, feed and air samples of poultry houses,” Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Vol. 3, pp. 168-174, Aug 2017.
S. Chaemsanit, A. Akbar and A. K. Anal, “Isolation of total aerobic and pathogenic bacteria from table eggs and its contents,” Food Appl. Biosci. J., Vol. 3, pp. 1-9. April 2015.
M. Salihu, B. Garba and Y. Isah, “Evaluation of microbial contents of table eggs at retail outlets in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria,” Sokoto J. Vet. Sci, Vol. 13, pp. 22-28, 2015.
B. M. Hang’Ombe, R. N. Sharma, L. M. Tuchili and O. Skjerve, “Isolation of bacteria from table eggs in Zambia,” Indian J. A. S., Vol. 69, pp. 445-447, 1999.
USDA (United State Department of Agriculture, Food Safety & Inspection Services), 2011. Shell eggs from farm to table. www.fsis.usda.gov, retrieved 12-04-2014.
J. Bruce and E. M. Drysdale, Trans-shell transmission, “Microbiology of the avian egg,” Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 63-91, 1994.
C. Papadopoulou, D. Dimitriou, S. Levidiotou, H. Gessouli, A. Panagiou, S. Golegou and G. Antoniades, “Bacterial strains isolated from eggs and their resistance to currently used antibiotics: Is there a health hazard for consumers?” Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., Vol. 20, pp. 35-40, 1997.
K. R. Jain and R. Yadav, “Study of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from table egg,” Int. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci., Vol. 8, pp. 668-674, Jan 2017.
S. Eid, S. A. Nasef and A. M. Erfan, “Multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in eggs collected from backyard chickens,” Assiut Vet. Med. J., Vol. 61, pp. 87-103, Jan 2015.
A. Adesiyun, N. Offiah, N. Seepersadsingh, S. Rodrigo, V. Lashley and L Musai, “Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli isolated from table eggs,” Food Cont., Vol. 18, pp. 306-311, 2007.
A. Kilonzo-Nthenge, S. N. Nahashon, F. Chen and N. Adefope, “Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria in chicken and guinea fowl,” Poult. Sci., Vol. 87, pp. 1841-1848, 2008.
I. G. Wilson, “Antimicrobial resistance of salmonella in raw retail chickens imported chicken portions, and human clinical specimens,” J. Food Prot., Vol. 67, pp.1220-1225, 2004.
C. M. Schroeder, D. G. White and J. Meng, “Retail meat and poultry as a reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli,” Food Microbiol., Vol. 21, pp. 249-255, 2004.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.