Agripreneurship and Agricultural Labour Market: Agripreneurial Intentions among Undergraduate Students in Ondo State, NigeriaAgripreneurship and Agricultural Labour Market: Agripreneurial Intentions among Undergraduate Students in Ondo State, Nigeria


  •   E. S. Ikuemonisan

  •   A. E. Akinbola


This study examined agripreneurial intentions among students in the state-owned tertiary institutions in Ondo State. The study profiled students’ perceptions of learning (SPOL), teachers’ impact (SPOT), and mentorship and explored the effects of these on their agripreneurial intentions. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze 120 students, who were randomly selected from the two state-owned tertiary institutions. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effects of SPOL, SPOT, mentorship, as well as other socioeconomic characteristics, on students’ likelihood to have agripreneurial intentions. The study revealed that SPOL, SPOT & age significantly increased the likelihood of students having agripreneurial intentions, while perceptions of mentorship and the number of graduates in the family decreased it. Although the SPOL and SPOT were positive and statistically significant, the weak effects of the mean scores suggest that SPOL and SPOT should be improved upon to enhance students’ interest in agripreneurship.

Keywords: agripreneurial intention, labour supply, students’ perception of learning, students’ perception of teachers, mentorship.


Nyoni, T. (2019). Population Explosion in Nigeria by 2050: Overwhelming Empirical Evidence from The Box-Jenkins ARIMA Approach. Dimorian Review, 6(2), 15-27.

International Monetary Fund, (2015): Promoting Economic Transformation in Nigeria. IMF Country Report No. 15/85

Rukuni, M., & Zvavanyange, R. (2014). Re-configuring the future of Africa’s workforce in agriculture and food systems with youth in mind. Nature & Faune, 28(1), 26-29.

Koira, A. (2014). Agribusiness in sub-Saharan Africa: pathways for developing innovative programs for youth and the rural poor. Agribusiness in sub-Saharan Africa: pathways for developing innovative programs for youth and the rural poor. Working Paper.

Agricultural Policy, Productivity and Poverty: The Critical Nexus. (Unpublished Inaugural Lecture Series 69, The Federal University of Technology, Akure. pp. 1-6.

Ajibefun, I. A., & Daramola, A. G. (2003). Determinants of technical and allocative efficiency of micro‐enterprises: firm‐level evidence from Nigeria. African development review, 15(2‐3), 353-395.

Eresia-Eke, C., & Gunda, C. (2015). The entrepreneurial intentions of University of Botswana students. Problems and perspectives in management, (13, Iss. 3), 55-65.

Carr, S., & Roulin, A. (2016). An exploration of Agripreneurship, Scope, Actors and Prospects. Agenda, 2063, 16.

Uche, C., & Familusi, L. C. (2018). The adoption of agripreneurship as a mitigating measure to unemployment in Nigeria: a topical review. Global Journal of Management and Business Research.

Alexandra Chimona (2020). Agripreneurship: The Agricultural Entrepreneurship. Institute of Entrepreneurship Development (iED).

Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who is an entrepreneur?” is the wrong question. American journal of small business, 12(4), 11-32.

Liverpool-Tasie. L.S.O. et al. (2020) Spillover Effects of Medium-Scale Farms on Smallholder Behaviour and Welfare: Evidence from Nigeria, Working Paper 38, Brighton: Future Agricultures Consortium.

Krueger Jr, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 18(3), 91-104.

Thompson, E. R. (2009). Individual entrepreneurial intent: Construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 669-694.

Guth, W. D., & Ginsberg, A. (1990). Guest editors' introduction: Corporate entrepreneurship. Strategic management journal, 5-15.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25(1), 217-226.

Olomu, M.O., Ekperiware, M.C. and Akinlo, T. (2020), "Agricultural sector value chain and government policy in Nigeria: issues, challenges and prospects", African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 525-538.

Shepherd, D. A., Williams, T. A., & Patzelt, H. (2015). Thinking about entrepreneurial decision making: Review and research agenda. Journal of management, 41(1), 11-46.

Katz, J., & Gartner, W. B. (1988). Properties of emerging organizations. Academy of management review, 13(3), 429-441.

Iwu, Chux Gervase Ikechukwu .O. Ezeuduji, Chukuakadibia Eresia-Eke, Robertson K. Tengeh. "The Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: The Case of a University of Technology in South Africa". Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica 1:164-181.

Ikuemonisan, Edamisan Stephen (2021). Influence of Agricultural Degree Programme Environment on students' career Preference in Agribusiness in Nigeria. Unpublished Policy Brief submitted to IITA.

Gaweâ, A. (2010). “The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Unemployment in the Business Cycle”, Journal of International Studies, Vol. 3, No 1, 2010, pp. 59-69.

Parker, S. C. (2006). Entrepreneurship, self-employment and the labour market. Oxford handbook of entrepreneurship, 435-460.

[24] Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit (Vol. 31). Houghton Mifflin. 273.

Liñán, F. & Chen, Y. (2006). Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample. Document de Treball d’economica dell’empresa, num 06/7. Universitat Autooma de Barcelona.

Liñán, F. & Chen, Y.W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 593-617.

European Commission (2012). Effects and impact of entrepreneurship programmes in higher education. European Commission: Brussels.

Douglas, E. J., & Shepherd, D. A. (2000). Entrepreneurship as a utility maximizing response. Journal of business venturing, 15(3), 231-251.

Campbell, B. A., Ganco, M., Franco, A. M., & Agarwal, R. (2012). Who leaves, where to, and why worry? Employee mobility, entrepreneurship and effects on source firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 33(1), 65-87.

Nwosu, J. C., John, H. C., Izang, A. A., & Akorede, O. J. (2018). Assessment of information and communication technology (ICT) competence and literacy skills among undergraduates as a determinant factor of academic achievement. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(15), 582-589.

Zhang, Y., Duysters, G. & Cloodt, M. (2014). The role of entrepreneurship education as a predictor of university students’ entrepreneurial intention. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 623-641.

Hattab, H. W. (2014). Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Egypt. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 1-18.

Solesvik, M., Westhead, P. & Matlay, H. (2014). Cultural factors and entrepreneurial intention: The role of entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, Vol. 56, No. 8/9, pp. 680-696.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human DecisionProcesses, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 179-211.

Lee, S.H., & Wong, P.K. (2004). An exploratory study of technopreneurial intentions: A career anchor perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 7-28.

Pillai, R. (2010). Labour Market Structure: A Brief Literature Survey. Online at MPRA Paper No. 27479, posted 20 Dec 2010 02:10 UTC.

Thurik, A. R., Carree, M. A., Van Stel, A., & Audretsch, D. B. (2008). Does self-employment reduce unemployment? Journal of Business Venturing, 23(6), 673-686.

Block, J., & Koellinger, P. (2009). I can't get no satisfaction—Necessity entrepreneurship and procedural utility. Kyklos, 62(2), 191-209.

Lynde, R. (2020). Innovation & entrepreneurship driving food system transformation. Physiology & behavior, 220, 112866.

Hessels, J., Van Gelderen, M., & Thurik, R. (2008). Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers. Small business economics, 31(3), 323-339.

Achim, W., Robert, F., Robert, H., & Nina B. (2017). Smart farming is key to developing sustainable agriculture. PNAS, 114(24), 6148-6150.

Price water house Coopers LLP (PwC). (2016). PwC Agribusiness report. African Press Organization.

Emami, M., Almassi, M., & Bakhoda, H. (2018). Agricultural mechanization, a key to food security in developing countries: strategy formulating for Iran. Agriculture & Food Security, 7(1), 1-12.

Bell, D. E., & Scott, C. (2011). Los Grobo: Farming's Future? Harvard Business School General Management Unit Case, (511- 088).

Saiz-Rubio, V., & Rovira-Más, F. (2020). From smart farming towards agriculture 5.0: A review on crop data management. agronomy, 10(2), 207.

Mellor, J. W. (2017). Agricultural development and economic transformation: promoting growth with poverty reduction. Springer. Palgrave Studies in Agricultural Economics and Food Policy. pp: 259.

Regan, Á., Stuart, G., & Paul, M. (2018). Smart farming in Ireland: Anticipating positive and negative impacts through a qualitative study of risk and benefit perceptions amongst expert actors in the Irish agri-food sector. Conference proceedings of 13th European International Farm Systems Association Symposium.

Lytos, A., Lagkas, T., Sarigiannidis, P., Zervakis, M., & Livanos, G. (2020). Towards smart farming: Systems, frameworks and exploitation of multiple sources. Computer Networks, 172, 107147.

Omodanisi, E. O., Egwakhe, A. J., & Ajike, O. E. (2020) Smart Agripreneurship: A Panacea for Food Security In Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 22, Issue 3. Ser. V (March. 2020), PP 65-74.

Adejumo, A. A. (2008), Processing, Marketing and Utilization of African Locust Bean (ParkiaBiglobosa, Jacque Benth) in Arigidi Akoko, Ondo State: Implications for Poverty Reduction, A Dissertation, Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan.

National Population Commission, NPC. (2006). Nigerian population census report 2006.

Veal, A.J. (2011). Research methods for leisure and tourism: A practical guide (4th Ed.). Harlow, UK: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Bateman, J., Carson, R. T., Day, B., Hanemann, W. M., Hanley, N., Hett, H., Lee, M. J., Loomes, G., Mourato, S., Özdemiroglu, E., Pearce, W. D., Elgar, E. (2002), Economic valuation with Stated Preference Techniques: A Manual, Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Yoo, D. M., & Kim, D. H. (2019). The relationship between students’ perception of the educational environment and their subjective happiness. BMC medical education, 19(1), 409.

Sweeney, B. (2004), Ask the mentor of mentors: a collection of answers to frequently asked questions,

Okurame, D. E. (2008). Mentoring in the Nigerian academia: experiences and challenges. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring, 6(2).

Umukoro, O. S., & Okurame, D. E. (2018). Role of mentoring in career adaptability and ambiguity tolerance of potential Nigerian entrepreneurs: the moderating effect of age. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 8(1), 1-13.

Sullivan, K. R., & Mahalik, J. R. (2000). Increasing career self‐efficacy for women: Evaluating a group intervention. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(1), 54-62.

McAleer S and Roff S (2001) A practical guide to using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). In: Genn JM (Ed). AMEE Medical Education Guide No.23 Curriculum, environment, climate, quality and change in medical education; A unifying perspective. Dundee (UK): Association of Medical Education in Europe. Pp. 29– 33.

Sieg, H., & Wang, Y. (2018). The impact of student debt on education, career, and marriage choices of female lawyers. European Economic Review, 109, 124-147.

Kenny, D. T. (2010). The Effect of Student Debt on Career Choices (Doctoral dissertation, Boston College. College of Arts and Sciences). Pp:1 -56.

Ukegbu, P., Nwofia, B., Ndudiri, U., Uwakwe, N., & Uwaegbute, A. (2019). Food insecurity and associated factors among University Students. Food and nutrition bulletin, 40(2), 271-281.

Etim, E. E., Duke, O. O., & Ogbinyi Jr, O. J. (2017). The implications of food insecurity, poverty and hunger on Nigeria’s national security. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 110.

Deeds, C. (2015, August). Food for thought: How food insecurity affects a child’s education. In Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum.

Afridi, Farzana and Barooah, Bidisha and Somanathan, Rohini, Hunger and Performance in the Classroom. IZA Discussion Paper No. 12627, Available at SSRN:

Cibrian-Llanderal, T., Melgarejo-Gutierrez, M., & Hernandez-Baltazar, D. (2018). Stress and Cognition: Psychological basis and support resources. Health and Academic Achievement, 11. Cooney, T. M. (2012). Entrepreneurship skills for growth-orientated businesses. In Report for the Workshop on ‘Skills Development for SMEs and Entrepreneurship (Vol. 28).

Molaei, R., Reza Zali, M., Hasan Mobaraki, M. and Yadollahi Farsi, J. (2014), "The impact of entrepreneurial ideas and cognitive style on students’ entrepreneurial intention", Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 140-162.

Boldureanu, G., Ionescu, A. M., Bercu, A. M., Bedrule-Grigoruță, M. V., & Boldureanu, D. (2020). Entrepreneurship education through successful entrepreneurial models in higher education institutions. Sustainability, 12(3), 1267.

Diegoli, R. B., & Gutierrez, H. S. M. (2018). Teachers as entrepreneurial role models the impact of a teacher's entrepreneurial experience and student learning styles in entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 21(1), 1-11.

Lee Y. M. (2018). It is time to reconsider the unnecessary division of premedical and medical studies. Korean J Med Educ; 30(4):279–281. doi: 10.3946/kjme.2018.102.

Moraes, G. H. S. M. D., Iizuka, E. S., & Pedro, M. (2018). Effects of entrepreneurial characteristics and university environment on entrepreneurial intention. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 22(2), 226-248.

Harris, C. R., & Jenkins, M. (2006). Gender differences in risk assessment: why do women take fewer risks than men?.

IBM Corp. Released 2015. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Laud, K. (2018). Factors influencing agri-preneurship and their role in agripreneurship performance among young graduate agripreneurs. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 3(6), 1878-2456.

World Bank. (2020). Monitoring global poverty. Report of Commission on Global Poverty.


How to Cite
Ikuemonisan, E. S., & Akinbola, A. E. (2021). Agripreneurship and Agricultural Labour Market: Agripreneurial Intentions among Undergraduate Students in Ondo State, NigeriaAgripreneurship and Agricultural Labour Market: Agripreneurial Intentions among Undergraduate Students in Ondo State, Nigeria. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(3), 76–85.