Comparative Evaluation of Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Fruits and Vegetables from Open Market and Shopping Mall in Port Harcourt City


  •   Patience C. Obinna-Echem

  •   Nkechi J. T. Emelike

  •   Happiness I. Wachukwu-Chikaodi


The study evaluated the proximate composition and sensory properties of fruits (banana and tomatoes) and vegetables (Lettuce and cabbage) from an open market and a shopping mall to ascertain the effect of the two environments on the sample quality. Standard analytic procedures were used in sample analysis. Open market samples had moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate content of 76.56-92.96, 0.25-1.24, 0.03–0.91, 0.56–1.17, 2.20–3.34 and 1.17 – 14.13 % respectively, while values for shopping mall were 80.62-94.10, 0.16–0.29, 0.06–0.21, 0.40–0.86, 1.54–3.87 and 0.91–14.28 % respectively. The degree of likeness for the appearance, flavour (aroma/taste), texture (firmness/crunchiness) and overall acceptability of the samples from the open market ranged from 6.60 - 7.00, 4.90 - 6.35, 5.25 -5.95 and 5.80 - 6.10 respectively, and those of the shopping mall were 6.55–7.25, 4.70–6.65, 5.45–5.95 and 5.85–6.30 respectively. The environment had significant (P≤0.05) influence on the proximate composition and sensory properties of the fruits and the vegetables. Fruits and vegetables from the open market had significantly (P≤0.05) higher nutrient content. The environment of the shopping mall provided the low temperature which improved upon the moisture and sensory attributes of the samples as evidenced in higher degree of likeness of samples from the shopping mall. This revealed the importance of storage and sales of fruits and vegetables under chilled storage.

Keywords: Fruits, vegetables, proximate composition, sensory properties


. J. L. Slavin and B. Lloyd, “Health benefits of fruits and vegetables,” Adv Nutr., vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 506-16. Jul. 2012 doi: 10.3945/an.112.002154. PMID: 22797986; PMCID: PMC3649719.

. O. Adebawo, B. Salau, E. Ezima, O. Oyefuga, E. Ajajani, and O. Osilesi, “Fruits and vegetables moderate lipid cardiovascular risks factor in hypertensive patients” Lipids Health Dis, vol. 5, no.1, pp. 1 -4. 2006.

. A. Jarvi, B. Karistrom, B. Vessby and W. Becker, “Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake,” British J Nutri, vol. 115, no.10, pp. 1760 -1768. 2016.

. Z. I. Mohammad, and A. Saleha, “Musa paradisiaca L. and Musa sapientum L. A phytochemical and pharmacological review,” J. Appl Pharm Sci, vol. 1, pp.14-20. 2011.

. R. Singh, R. Kaushik and S. Gosewade, “Bananas as Underutilized Fruit Having Huge Potential as Raw Materials for Food and Non-Food Processing Industries: A Brief Review,” Pharma Innov J, vol. 7, pp. 574-580. 2018.

. C. O. Anyanwu and B. T. Komolafe, Agricultural Science for Schools and Colleges. Longman Publishers, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2003.

. K. M. F. Haque, A. A. Jahangir, M. E. Haque, R. K. Mondal, M. A. A. Jahan and M. A. M. Sarker, “Yield and Nutritional Quality of Cabbage as Affected by Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization.” Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res, vol. 41, no.1-2, pp.41-46. 2006.

. M. J. Kim, Y. Moon, J. C. Tou, B. Mou and N. L. Waterland, “Nutritional value, bioactive compounds and health benefits of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.),” J Food composition analysis, vol. 49, pp.19-34. 2016.

. H. C. Passam and I. C. Karapanos, “Eggplants, peppers and tomatoes: factors affecting the quality and storage life of Fresh and Fresh-cut (minimally processed) produce,” Euro J Plant Sci Biotechnol,” vol. 2, no.1, pp.156 -170. 2008.

. AOAC, Official methods of analysis, Association of official analytical chemist 19th edition, Washington D.C., USA. 2012.

. M.O. Iwe, Handbook of Sensory methods and Analysis. Rojoint Communication Services Uwani Enugu. 2002. 72. ISBN 978-32124-8-6.

. S. K. Kookal and A. Thimmaiah, Nutritional Composition of Staple Food Bananas of Three Cultivars in India. American J Plant Sci, vol. 9, pp. 2480-2493. 2018.

. M. Tayyeb, N. Rashid, S. U. K. Achakzai, S. U. Rehman, W. Akhtar, K. Baseer and M. Sabir, “Mineral profile and proximate analysis of fresh and waste water irrigated cabbage from Quetta Balochistan,” Pure Appl Biol. Online first accepted article. 2017.

. T. Garuba, O. T. Mustapha and G. P. Oyeyiola, “Shelf life and proximate composition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits as influenced by storage methods,” Ceylon J Sci, vol. 47, no.4, pp. 387-393. 2018. DOI:

. N. G. Nwachukwu and I. P. Aba, “Effect of maturity on the proximate composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa),” Acad Res Int, Vol. 6, no.1, pp.55-62, January 2015.

. B. O. Oyeyinka and A. J. Afolayan, “Comparative evaluation of the nutritive, mineral, and antinutritive composition of Musa sinensis L. (Banana) and Musa paradisiaca L. (Plantain) fruit compartments,” Plants, vol. 8, pp. 598, 2019. doi:10.3390/plants8120598.

. R. S. U. Wasagu, M. Lawal, S. Shehu, H. H. Alfa and C. Muhammad, “Nutritive values, mineral and antioxidant properties of Pistia stratiotes (Water lettuce),” Nigerian J Basic Appl Sci, vol. 21, no.4, pp. 253-257, 2013. doi:

. R. P. Heaney and D. K. Layman, “Amount and type of protein influences on bone health,” American J clini Nutri, vol. 87, no.5, pp.1567s-1570S, 2008.

. C. D. Berdanier and J. Zempleni, Advanced Nutrition Macronutrients and Micronutrients and Metabolism. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group New York. 2009, pp. 257.

. T. B. Onifade, O. A. Aregbesola, M.T. Ige and A. O. Ajayi, “Some physical properties and thin layer drying characteristics of local varieties of tomatoes (Lycopersiconlycopersicum),” Agri Biol J North America, vol. 4, no.3, pp. 275-279, 2013.

. M. R. Marshall, Ash analysis. In: S. S. Nielsen, Food analysis. 4ed. Springer, New York, USA. 2010, pp.105-106.

. F. Maul, S. A. Sargent, C. A. Sims, E. A. Baldwin, M.O. Balaban and D. J. Huber, “Tomato flavor and aroma quality as affected by storage temperature,” J Food Sci, vol. 65, pp.1228-1237, 2000.

. A. Krumbein, P. Peters, B. Brückner, “Flavour compounds and a quantitative descriptive analysis of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) of different cultivars in short-term storage,” Postharvest Biol Technol, vol. 32, pp.15-28, 2004.


How to Cite
Obinna-Echem, P. C., Emelike, N. J. T., & Wachukwu-Chikaodi, H. I. (2021). Comparative Evaluation of Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Fruits and Vegetables from Open Market and Shopping Mall in Port Harcourt City. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(1), 119-123.

Most read articles by the same author(s)