Seven major ecological zones of Nigeria with modern functional apiaries were mapped and sampled in the rainy season between April 2016 and October 2018 for estimating the bee foraging flight range and floral species diversity; collating satellite imagery data for geospatial zone mapping using GPS (Garmin Etrex 20) to capture the coordinates of apiaries locations and their attributes, climatic and topographic data and generating ecological zones: the wetland vegetation, savanna grassland, savanna woodland (disturbed), shrubby forest, lowland dense forest, and Highland rain forest. Honeybee flight ranges between 1 and 5 kilometer radius from where bees at the apiaries can forage for pollen and nectar. Igbeti/Malete/Buari bees forages at similar ecosystems within this range while those at Saki and Abuja apiaries have potentials to forage at different ecological zones ranging from woodland savanna to lowland and high forests. Abuja (woodland savanna and shrubby forest zones) apiaries produces average of 32 liters of honey per hive and Kwara (savanna grassland and wood land Savanna) produces average of 24 liters of honey per hive. There is also structural variation in the floral species diversity and richness as richness marginally differed at the locations. Highest index was observed in Orozo (H=2.62; Margalef = 3.05) and Agbungburu (H=2.54; Margalef = 3.06). Low index was attained at Buari (H= 2.10; Margalef= 2.32) and Igbeti (H= 2.11; Margalef= 2.62). Apiary managers and farmers acquiring relevant knowledge on apiculture and prevailing A. mellifera apiaries would assist management activities; contribute to better production and pollination for food security.
D. Howpage. The apiculture development project of Sri Lanka. J. Beekeeping Dev. 1991;19: 10-11.
P Segeren. The value of beekeeping in the tropics Agrodok CTA, 1997; 32: 6-8.
A. T Ande, A. A Oyerinde and M. N. Jubril, Comparative study of the influence of hive types on bee colony establishment. Int. J. Agric Biol.2008; (10):517-520.
E. Shawn The Beehive and the Stock of Knowledge. Philalethes, The Journal of Masonic Research and Letters.2010; 63.1, 35-42., Seeley, TD. Morse, RA. Nest site selection by the honey bee Apis mellifera. Insectes Sociaux. 1978; 23(4):323-37.
Massachusetts Beekeepers Association (MBA) (2014). Best Management Practices, 2014; 1: 1–6.
United States Department of Agriculture. Pollen Plants for Honey. University Georgia Cooperation Extension Bulletin 1106. 2016.
K. A. Rahaman Nectar and pollen plants of the Punjab, Indian Bee Journal, 1941; 4:32-35.
S.A.K Malik. Some important nectariferous plants and pollen sources of Bhopal state, Central India. Indian Bee Journal, 1948; 10:107.
C. Grüter and W. Farina Nectar distribution and its relation to food quality in honeybee (Apismellifera) colonies. Insectes Sociaux, 2007; 54(1), 87-94.
Meixner, M.D., Pinto, M., Bouga, M., Kryger, P.,Ivanova, E., et al (2013).Standard methods for characterizing.
Wolff, E.W. et al., (2006). Southern ocean sea-ice extent, productivity and iron flux over the past eight glacial cycles. Nature, 440, 491-496.
Burrough and McDonnell, 1998- Burrough, A.P. and McDonnell, A. R. (1998). Principles of Geographical Systems. Oxford University Press.
B Akpu. Potential of using remote sensing to assess actual land use deviation from Abuja master plan: A case study of wuse-1 Abuja. Un published M. tech. project. Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna; 2002.
A.F Adesina. Geo information and natural resources exploitation in Africa. A paper presented at the 4th Meeting of the committee on development information (CODI IV) held at Addis Ababa. Ethiopia; 2005.
Klinkenberg, B. (2007). Geospatial Technologies and the Geographies of hope and fear. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(2): 350-360.
Steiniger S. and Weibel R. (2009) GIS Software a descriptin in 1000 words. Freegis documents/article/gissoftware.
Goodchild, 2011- Goodchild, M. (2011). Scale in GIS: an overview. Geomorphology, 130(1-2): 5-9.
Simone, R. Alessandro, D. R.G. et al., (2014). Magnitude of extreme heat waves in present climate and their projection in a warming world. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 119, issue 22.
Fahrig, L (2003). Effects of habitat fragmentation on Biodiversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 34: 487-515.
2005 Coulson, M., Robert, S., Saint, R. (2005). Drosophila starvin encodes a tissue-specific BAG-domain protein required for larva food uptake. Genetic 17(4): 1799-1812.
R Brodschneider and K Crailsheim. Nutrition and health in honey bees. Apidologie, 2010; 41:278-294.
Estoque, R.C. andY. Murayama (2010). Suitability analysis for beekeeping sites in La Union, Philipines, Using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation techniques. Res. J, Appl. Sci. 5(3): 242-253.
A.B.M. Shariff and S. Arekhi (2011). An approach for rangeland suitability analysis in Apiculture planning in Gharah Aghach Region, Isfahan-Iran. World Appl. Sci. J., 12(7): 962-972.
Amiri, F.and AWE.B.M. Shariff (2012), Application of geographic information systems in landuse suitability evaluation for beekeeping: A case study of Vahregan watershed (Iran). Afr. J. Agri. Res., 7(1):89-97.
Abou-Shaara, H, Ahmad A, Abdesalam A.M. (2013). Honey bee colonies performance enhance by newly modified beehives.Journal of Apicultural Science, 57(2): 45-57.
FAO, (1976). A framework for land evaluation. Soil bulletin 32.
De la Rosa, D., Moreno, J.A., Mayol, F., Bonson, T., 2000. Assessment of soil erosion vulnerability inWestern Europe and potential impact on crop productivity due to loss of soil depth using the ImpelERO model. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 81,179–190.
Malczewski, J., (2004). GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview. Progress in Planning 62, 3-65.
Oyenuga, V.A., (1967). Agriculture in Nigeria: An introduction. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 308 p.
Iloeje, N.P. (2001). A New Geography of Nigeria. New Revised Edition, Longman Nig. Ltd., Lagos, 200 p.
X. Scheldeman, and M. van Zonneveld. Training Manual on Spatial Analysis of Plant Diversity and Distribution. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, 2010.
G. Salako, H. Sawyer, B Abubakar, A. Adebayo and A Adio. Deductive and Multi-criteria Approach to Ecosystem Modeling and Habitat Mapping of Shea Butter Trees (Vitellaria Paradoxa) in the Tropical Savanna International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) 2017; 2, http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.38.
A. R Huete. A Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Remote Sensing and the Environment 1988; 25: 53-70.
J. R Hagler , M. Shannon , R.T Larry , A. M Scott and V. D Allen . Foraging Range of Honey Bees, Apismellifera, in Alfalfa Seed Production Fields J Insect Sci. 2011; 11: 144.
Chakraborty and J. Maantay Proximity analysis for exposure assessment in environmental health justice research. Chapter 5 In Maantay, J.A., and McLafferty, S. Geospatial analysis of environmental health, technologies and the environment. DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-0329-2_5, Springer Science+Business Media B.V.2011.
Cullen, B.J, Parboteach, KP, Victor B (2003) The effects of ethical climates on organizational commitment A two study analysis Journal of Business Ethics 46, 2, ABI/INFORM Global pg 127.
Fidalgo, O. & Bononi, V.L.R. (1989). Tecniacas de coleta, preservacao e herboricao de material botanico.Botanica, Sao Paulo.
Reitz, R.; Klein, R.M.; Reis, A. (1978). Projeto Madeira de Santa Catarina Sellowia 28: 11-320.
Reitz, R.; Klein, R.M.; Reis A. (1983). Projecto Madeira do Rio Grande do Sul. Sellowia, n.34-35, p.1-525.
Roderjan, C. V.; Galvao, F.; Kuniyoshi, Y. S.; Hatschbach, G. G. (2002). As unidades fitogeograficas do estado do parana, Brasil. Ciencia & Ambiente Santa Maria, v. 13, n.24, p.75-92.
F. E, Blake and B. O Elgene, Vegetation and ecosystem mapping. 2015; https://doi.org/10.1036/1097-8542.729200.
P. Treitz and P. Howarth Integrating Spectral, Spatial, and Terrain Variables for Forest Ecosystem Classification. Photogrammetic Engineering and Remote Sensing, 2000; 66: 305-317.
G Salako, O. Olalubi, Sawyerr, H., G. Howe, A. Adebayo, and A. Adio. Using Multi Techniques Analysis in Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification and Mapping of Mambilla Plateau in Taraba State Nigeria. Open Journal of Ecology, 2016; 6: 412-426.
L.P Polatto J. Chaud-Netto and V. V Alves-Junior Influence of abiotic factors and floral resource availability on daily foraging activity of bees. Journal of Insect Behavior, 2014; 27(5), 593-612.
A Kleinert-Giovannini, and V. Imperatriz-Fonseca Flight activity and responses to climatic conditions of two subspecies of Meliponamarginata Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponinae). Journal of Apicultural Research, 1986; 25(1): 3-8.
Dyer, F.C. (2002). The Biology of the dance language. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 47: 917-49.
S.G, Potts J. C, Biesmeijer C Kremen, P, Neumann O Schweiger and W. E Kunin. Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trendsin Ecology & Evolution, 2010; 25(6), 345-353.
G Amdam, K, Norberg S Omholt, P, Kryger A. Lourenco M, Bitondi and Z. Simoes Higher vitellogenin concentrations in honey bee workers may be an adaptation to life in temperate climates. Insectes Sociaux 52(4): 316-319.
S. Camazine The regulation of pollen foraging by honey bees: how foragers assess the colony's need for pollen. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1993; 32(4):265-272.
Goulson, D. (1994). Effects of introduced bees on native ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 34(2003), pp. 1-26.
Marchini, G.; Ann-Kristin, Karin, l. Berit, S.; Veronica, B.R.N. and Solbritt L. (2001). Erythma Toxicum Neonatorum: An Immunohistochemical Analysis. Pediatric Dermatology, Volume 18, Issue 3.
S Hilário, V. Imperatriz-Fonseca and A. Kleinert Responses to climatic factors by foragers of Plebeiapugnax Moure (in litt.) (Apidae, Meliponinae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 2001; 61(2): 191-196.
J. C Biesmeijer, and H. Vries Exploration and exploitation of food sources by social insect colonies: a revision of the scout-recruit concept. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2001; 49(2-3): 89-99.
Costa, R.G.; Correia, M.X.C.; Silva, J.H.V. da; Medeiros, A.N. de; Carvalho, F.F.R. de, (2007). Effects of different levels of dehydrated pineapple by-products on intake, digestibility and performance of growing goats. Small Rumin. Res., 71(1-3): 138-143.
Grüter, C. and Farina, M. W. (2007). Nectar distribution and its relation to food quality in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies. Insectes Sociaux 54(1): 87-94.
A Ayodele and G. A. Lameed Essentials of Biodiversity. Power house Press and Publishers; 1999.
R Fox and K. Rowntree The Geography of South Africa in a Changing World. Oxford University. 2000.
B Groombridge and M. D Jenkins, World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's living resources in the 21st century. University of California Press, Berkeley; 2002.
P.M. F Lindgren, and T. P Sullivan. Influence of alternative vegetation management treatments on conifer plantation attributes: abundance, species diversity and structural diversity for Ecol. Manage. 2001; 142: 163–182.
C. R Groves. Drafting a conservation blueprint: A practitioner's guide to planning for biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, 2002.
M. R Ardakani. Ecology. Tehran University Press; 1996. 340pp.
L. Jost Entropy and diversity. Oikos 2006; 113: 363-375.
H. Koop Forest Dynamics. Silvi-star: A Comprehensive Monitoring System.Springer, Berlin. 1989.
F Burrough. Geographic Information System WDL Publishers, Ohawa. 1986.
J. O Adejuwon and F.A Adesina, Vegetation patterns along the forest-savanna boundary in Nigeria. Singapore Journal of TropicalGeography,1988;9(1):18-3.
A.D, Agbelade J.C Onyekwelu and O. Apogbona Assessment of Urban tree species population and diversity in Ibadan, Nigeria,” Environmental and Ecology Research 2016;4(4):185–192.
AGR (2016-04-27). Apiary Program (honey bees), Energy and Environmental Affairs.Retrieved2017-10-29.
M.R Ardakani. Ecology. Tehran University Press; 1996. 340 pp.
A. M Ajao, Y. U Oladimeji, S. K Babatunde and A. Obembe Differential morphometric patterns of Apismellifera and adaptation to climatic variations in Kwara State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology; 2014;3 (1): 34-40.
A. Ayansina and S. Ogunbo GIS Approach in Assessing Seasonal Rainfall Variability in Guinea Savanna Part of Nigeria, 7th FIG Regional Conference, Vietnam, 19-22 October 2009; 16 pp.
O. Areola. Ecology of the natural resources of Nigeria. London: Avebury Studies in Green Research, 1991. pp.112-113.
A. O Aweto Plantation Forestry and Forest Conservation in Nigeria. The Environmentalist 1990;10(2): 127-133.
W. D. Clayton Secondary vegetation and transition to savanna near Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal ofEcology1958;46: 217-238.
T. W Crowther, H. B Glick, K. R Covey, C, Bettigole D. S, Maynard S. M, Thomas J. R Smith, G Hintler and M. C Duguid. Mapping tree density at a global scale. Nature, Advance online publication 2015;7568:201-205.
K. S Delaplane, D. F. Mayer Croppollination by bees. New York: CABI Publishing, 2000; 344 p.
C. N Egbinola and C. A. Amanambu. Climate Variation Assessment Based on Rainfall and Temperature in Ibadan, South-Western, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 2013; 3(11) 32-45.
C. N Emuh and A. S Gbadegesin. Species diversity patterns along the forest savanna boundary in Nigeria. Management of Environmental Quality: An International journal. 2019; 20(1) 64-72.
C. A Ezeabara, C. U Okeke, B. O Aziagba and Ilodibia, CV. Bee -Plants of Southeastern Nigeria - A Review. The Bioscientist: 2013; 1(1):94-98.
G. Thomas et al, 2009). Common tree definitions for national forest inventories in Europe Silva Fennica, 43(2)303-321, Lund H. Gyde (1999). A forest by any other name. Environmental Science & Policy, 2(2)125-133.
I, Keller P Fluri and A Imdorf. Pollen nutrition and colony development in honey bees: part II. Bee World 2005; 86(1):3-10.
R Kumar, G S Rajput, R. C Mishra, O. P Agrawal. A study on assessment of duration of dearth period for Honey bees in Haryana, India. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 2013; 8 (1): 434-437.
O. A Lawal and A.D. Banjo Appraising the beekeepers knowledge and Perception of pests’ problem in beekeeping business at different ecological zones in South Western Nigeria. World Journal of Zoology.2010;5(2):137-142.
H, Luis A, Soares C Paulo, C Rodrigues and P Fábio. Effects of abiotic factors on the foraging activity of Apismellifera Linnaeus, 1758 in inflorescences of Vernoniapolyanthes Less (Asteraceae). Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, Maringá, 2015; 37(4): 405-409.
D. M, Marina A. P, Maria B Maria, K, Per I. Evgeniya and F. Stefan. Standard methods for characterizing subspecies and ecotypes of Apismellifera, Journal of Apicultural Research, 2013; 52(4).
I. Miguel, M Baylac, M Iriondo, L Manzano, Garnery, A Estonba. Both geometric morphometric and microsatellite data consistently support the differentiation of the Apismellifera M. Evolutionary Branch. Apidologie, 2011;42:150-161.
P. C Nath, A Arunachalam, M. L Khan, K. Arunachalam and A. R Barbhuiya. Vegetation analysis and tree population structure of tropical wet evergreen forests in and around Namdapha National Park, northeast India, Biodiversity and Conservation, 2015; 14(9): 2109–2135.
K. N Ndukwe. Digital Technology in surveying and mapping. Enugu, Nigeria: Rhyce Kerex Publishers. 2001.
Y.U Oladimeji and A.M Ajao. Structure and determinants of profit efficiency among small scale rice farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology. 2014;3(11):27–33.
D. W Roubik, S. F Sakagami and I. kudo. A note on the distribution and nesting of the Himalayan largest honeybee Apislaborisoa Smith (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). J Kansas EntomolSoc1985; 58:746–749.
T. D Seeley and R. A Morse. The nest of the honey bee (Apismellifera L.) Insectes Sociaux 1976; 23: 495 – 512.
M. Thakur. Bees as Pollinators – Biodiversity and Conservation. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science 2012; 2(1):1-7.
B Waykar, R. K Baviskar, T. B Nikam. Diversity of nectariferous and polleniferous bee flora at Anjaneri and Dugarwadi hills of Western Ghats of Nasikdistrict (M. S.) India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2014; 2 (4): 244-249.
 C. W Whitfield, S. K Behura, S. H, Berlocher A. G Clark, J. S Johnston, W. S. Sheppard. Thrice out of Africa: ancient and recent expansions of the Honeybee, Apismellifera. Science, 2006; 314:642–645.
T. C Wossler. Pheoromone mimicry by parasites leach to reproductive anarchy in Apismellifera Escutellata colonies Apidologie2002; 33: 139-16 4.
W. Xu, and G. A Xiao. Remote Sensing and GIS Integrated Study on Urbanization with Its Impact on Arable Lands: Fuqing City, Fujian Province, China,” Land Degradation & Development, 2000; 11(4): 301–314.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.