Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Characteristics, Phytochemical Components and Fatty Acid Profile of Avocado Pear (Persea Americana L) Pulp and Seed Oil

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   O. M. Akusu

  •   P. C. Obinna-Echem

  •   P. C. C= Opurum

  •   B. S. Chibor

Abstract

The physiochemical properties, phytochemical content, and fatty acid profile of Avocado pear (Persea americana) pulp and seeds oils were investigated. The pulp oil was extracted using the hot water flotation method while the seed oil was extracted by the soxhlet extraction method. Extracted oils were analyzed. The pulp oil was emerald green while the seed oil was brownish red in colour. Pulp oil has significantly higher blue (27B) on Lovibond scale. The oil yield, smoke point and flash point of the pulp oil were 28.26%, 171.00 °C and 201.67 °C respectively. Which were higher than 13.64%, 100.00 and 130.66 °C seen in the seed oil. Iodine value, FFA, peroxide value and saponification value of the pulp oil were respectively 50.70 g/100 g, 0.53%, 1.10 mEq/kg and 218.66 mgKOH/g while those of the seed oil were 40.68 g/100 g, 2.85%, 2.16 mEq/kg and 198.31 mgKOH/g respectively. Saponins, alkaloid, phenol, tannin, and oxalate content of the seed oil were significantly higher than those of the pulp oil, with respective values of 12.23, 1.06, 5.06, 3.05 and 10.07 mg/100 g. Flavonoid was however higher in the pulp oil, at 6.20 mg/100 g. avocado pulp oil contained 43.23% oleic acid, 19.78% linoleic acid. It contains only 35.31% total saturated fatty acids. The seed oil was shown to contain 55% palmitic acid, as the predominant saturated fatty acid and contained a total of 69% saturated fatty acids. It is recommended that avocado seed oil be refined before use for culinary purposes.


Keywords: Avocado Pear Oil, Physical, Phytochemical, Fatty Acid Profile

References

Nwaokobia1, K., Ogboru, R.O and Idibie, C.A. (2018). Extraction of edible oil from the pulp of Persea americana (Mill) using cold process method. World News of Natural Science WNOFNS, 17, 130-140.

Orhevba, B.A. and Jinadu, A.O. (2011). Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties and Nutritional Contents Of Avocado Pear (Persea Americana M.). Academic Research International, 1,3,372-380.

Adaramola, B., Onigbinde, A. and Shokunbi, O. (2016). Physiochemical properties and antioxidant potential of Persea Americana seed oil. Chemistry International, 2(3) 168-175.

Nayak, BS, Rafu SS, Chatapti, RAV. (2008) Wound healing activity of persea Americana (Avocado) fruit: a potential study on rats. Journal of wound care, 17:123-126.

Oluwole, S., Yusuf, K., Fajana, O., Olaniyan, D. (2013). Qualitative Studies on Proximate Analysis and Characterization of Oil from Persea Americana (Avocado Pear). Journal of Natural Sciences Research 3(2), 68-73.

Maitera, O.N., Osemeahon, S.A., Barnabas, H.L. (2014). Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Avocado Fruit obtained from Taraba State, Nigeria. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2(2), 67-73.

Dreher, M.L., Davenport., A.J. (2013). Hass Avocado composition and potential health benefits. Cri. Rev. food Sci. Nutr. 53, 738–750.

Elsayed, E., Lobna, S., 2013. Hypolipidemic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of avocado fruit on high cholesterol fed diet in rats and its antioxidant effect in vitro. Journal of American Science 9(12), 337-343.

Ashraf, M.W., Bilal, M., Iqbal, M. (2015). Antiglycation activity of vegetables aqueous and methanolic extracts. Current Science Perspectives 1, 12-15.

Asif, M., 2016. A review on recent advances and potential pharmacological activities of versatile chalchone molecule. Chemistry International 2, 1-18.

Hussain, F., Shahid, M., Javed, K., 2016. Antioxidant, antiglycation and alpha Amylase inhibitory activities of Cassia absus seeds. Current Science Perspectives 2, 5-9.

Pieterse, Z. (2003). Avocados (monounsaturated fatty acids), weight loss and serum lipids. Energy, 26:65-71.

Boyadzhie, S.S., Georgieva, S.S. and Angelov, G. (2018). Optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from avocado seeds. Bulgarian Chemical Communications, 50:80-84.

Solazer, M.J., El-Hafidi, M., Pastelin, C., Ramirez-Ortega, M.C. and Sanchez-Mendoza. (2005). Effect of an avocado oil-rich diet over an angiotensin 11-induced blood pressure response. Journal of Ethnopharmacol, 98(3):335-338.

Lu QY, Arteaga JR, Zhang Q, Huerta S, Go VL, Heber D (2005) Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances. J Nutr Biochem 16(1): 23-30.

Ortiz, M.A., Dorantes, A.I., Gallnedez, M.J. and Cardenas, S.E. (2004). Effect of a novel oil extraction method on avocado (Persea Americana Mill) pulp microstructure. Plant foods for human nutrition, 59(1):11-14.

Rodríguez-Carpena, J.G., Morcuende, D., Estévez, M. (2011). Avocado by-products as inhibitors of color deterioration and lipid and protein oxidation in raw porcine patties subjected to chilled storage. Meat Science 89, 166–173.

Anaka ON, Ozolua R.I, and Okpo S.O, (2000) Effect of The Aqueous Sead Extract of Persea Americana Mill (lauracea) on the blood pressure of Spraque-dawley rats. African Journal. Pharmacist Pharmacology, 9, 3: 485-90.

Tango, J. S. T.; Carvalho, C. R. L.; Soares, N. B. (2004.) Physical and chemical characterization of avocado fruits aiming its potencial for oil extraction. Brasileira de Fruticultura, 26, 1,

Gupta, S.K., Singhal, P. and Sing, A. (2018). Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Benefits of Avocado Plant. Journal Advance Research, 9 (2):4-11.

Chibor B. S., Kiin-Kabari D. B and Eke-Ejiofor J. (2018). Comparative Assessment of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil with Some Commercial Vegetable Oils in Rivers State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2(2): 32-40.

AOAC. (2012). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists. 19th Edition. Washington, DC, USA.

Rosenthal, A., Pyle, D.I. and Niranjan, K. (1996). Aqueous and Enzymatic Processes for edible oil extraction. Enzyme Microbiology and Microbial Technology, 19, 402-420.

Obadoni, B.O and Ochuko, P.O. (2002). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some haemostatic plantsin Edo and Delta State of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 8(2). DOI:10,4314/gjpas.v8i2.16033.

Harborne, J.B. (1998). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis, 3rd ed. Springer, Delhi.

Nwokonkwo, D.C. (2014). Phytochemical Study and anti-bacterial activities of the seed extract of Dacryode edulis (African Native Pear). American Journal of Science and Industrial Research, 5 (1):7-12.

Oyetayo, F.L and Ojo, B.A. (2012). Food value and phytochemical composition of Luffa xylindrica seed flour. American Journal of Biochemistry, 2 (6):98-103.

Flores, M., Saravia, C., Vergara, C.E., Avila, F., Valdés, H. and Ortiz-Viedma, J. (2019). Avocado Oil: Characteristics, Properties, and Applications. Molecules, 24, 2172; doi:10.3390/molecules24112172.

Maduka Tochukwu DO*, Ikpa Chiyere BC and Kalu Georgina. (2020). Physicochemical Characterization and Assessment of Bioactive Chemical Compounds of Persea Americana (Avocado) Seed. Journal of Natural and Ayurvedic Medicine, 4(1): 000229.

Akinoso R., Raji A.O., 2010. Optimization of Oil Extraction from Locust Beans using Response Surface Methodology. European Journal of Lipid science and Technology 113(2), 245-252.

Nnaji JC, Okereke OB (2016) Proximate composition and physico-chemical properties of three avocados. (Persea americana) Varieties in Umuahia, Nigeria, Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, 5(4): 195-200.

Bwade, K. E., Aliyu, B., Kwaji, A. M. (2013). Physicochemical properties of pumpkin seed oil relevant to biodiesel production and other industrial applications. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Enterprise Applications 4(1), 72–78.

Akusu, O. M. and Wordu, G. O. (2019). Physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of Allanblackia seed oil and African pear pulp oils. International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science, 7(2), 14-22.

Dagde KK (2019) Extraction of Vegetable Oil from Avocado Seeds for Production of Biodiesel, J Appl Sci Environ Manage 23(2): 215-221.

Chibor, B.S., Kiin-Kabari, D.B. and Ejiofor, J. (2017). Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of Shea Butter and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil, a Suitable Blend in Bakery Fat Production. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 6(3), 122-128.

Shahidi, F. (2005). Quality Assurance of Fats and oils. In: Bailey’s Industrial oil and fats products, Shahidi, F. (Ed). 6A Edn. John Wily and Sons Inc., USA.

Sodeke, V.A., (2005). Extraction of Oil from Water Melon Seed and Analysis (2005). Quarterly Research Service:25-30.

Thomes, A. (2002). Fats and fatty oils, Ullman’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim Wiley-VCH ISBN 3:527- 30673.

CODEX (2011). CODEX Alimentairus Commission Standard for Fats and Oil Derived from Edible Fats and Oils, FAO Corporate Document, CODEX STAN 32. Retrieved from https://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y2774e06. 10th July, 2019.

Andzouana, M., Mombouli, J.B. (2012) Assessment of the Chemical and Phytochemical Constituents of the Leaves of a Wild Vegetable-Ochthocharis dicellandroides (Gilg). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11 (1): 94-99.

Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS). (1992). Standard Organization of Nigeria, Standard for Edible Vegetable Oil. Lagos, Nigeria: Essential Communications Ltd.

Zaharaddeen, N.G., Galadima, A., Abdulfatai A.S. 2014. Mineral Composition, Physicochemical. Properties and Fatty Acids Profile of Citrullus Vulgaris Seed Oil. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 4(6), 54-57.

Navaratne, S.B., Subasinghe, D.J.S. (2013). Determination of fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties of Watermelon and Soursop seed oils. European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 1(4), 26-32.

Bwai, M. D., Adedirin, O., Akanji, F. T., Muhammad, K. J., Idoko, O. and Useh, M. U. (2013). Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Seed Oil of Breadfruit (Treculia africana). International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 3(3), 44-54.

Cassia, R.M., Mieko, K., Neuza, J., 2011. Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 31(4), 929-934.

Kiin-Kabari, D.B., Ejiofor, J. and Chibor, B.S. (2018). Changes in Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbiological Quality of Bakery Shortening Formulated with Shea Butter and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil During Storage. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology, 3(3): 89-94.

Indriyani, L., Rohman, A. and Riyanto, S. (2016). Physico-Chemical Characterization of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Oil from Three Indonesian Avocado Cultivars. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 10 (1): 67-78.

Ononogbu, I. C. (2002). Lipid in Human Existence. Ap Express, Nsukka pp. 1-80.

Aremu, M.O., Ibrahim, H., and Bamidele, T.O. (2015). Physicochemical Characteristics of the Oils Extracted from Some Nigerian Plant Foods. Chemical and Process Engineering Research. 32, 22-25.

Arukwe, U., Amadi, B.A.,Duru, M. K.C., Agomuo,E.N., Adindu, E. A.,Odika, P.C.,Lele,K.C., Egejuru, L., and Anudike, J.(2012)Chemical Composition Of PerseaAmericana Leaf, Fruit And Seed. IJRRAS, 11,2. www.arpapress.com.

Gertz, C., Klostermann, S. And Kochhar, S.P. (2000). Testing and Comparing oxidativestability of vegetable oils andfats at frying temperature. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol.102,543–551.

Ghosh, P.K., Chatterjee, D. And Bhattacharjee, P. (2012). Alternative methods of frying and antioxidant stabilityin soybean oil. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol. 4, 26–33.

Schiavone A, Guo, K, Tassone S. (2008). Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks. Poultry science, 87 (3): 521-7.

Suvanto J, Nohynek L, Seppänen-Laakso T, Rischer H, Salminen JP, Puupponen-Pimiä R. (2017) Variability in the production oftannins and other polyphenols in cell cultures of 12 Nordic plantspecies. Planta, 246(2): 227-241.

Degnon MRG, Adjou ES, Noudogbessi JP, et al. Investigationon nutritional potential of soursop (Annonamuricata L.) from Benin for its use as food supplement against protein-energy deficiency. IJB. 2013; 3(6): 135-144.

Ezeagu, I.E. (1997). Nutrient composition and protein quality of seeds of some uncultivated plants in Nigeria. Ph. D Thesis, Department of Animal Science, Univerisity of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Akusu, O. M., Obinna-Echem, P. C., Opurum, P. C., & Chibor, B. S. (2021). Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Characteristics, Phytochemical Components and Fatty Acid Profile of Avocado Pear (Persea Americana L) Pulp and Seed Oil. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(1), 11-17. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.1.212