Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of African Elemi Fruit Pulp Oil Compared with Palm Kernel Oil

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  •   D. B. Kiin-Kabari

  •   P. S. Umunna

  •   S. Y. Giami

Abstract

African elemi (Canarium schweinfurthii) fruit pulp oil was extracted and refined which yielded 39.5% oil. It was characterized for its physical, chemical, phytochemical properties and fatty acid profile in comparison with palm kernel oil (PKO). The result for physical properties revealed that there was no significant difference in the density, refractive index, and flash point of the oils. African elemi fruit pulp oil (AEO) had significantly (p>0.05) higher slip melting point and viscosity while significantly (p<0.05) lower smoke point and fire point. Chemical properties of the oils such as iodine, acid value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids were significantly (p>0.05) higher in AEO with the values of 76.79 g/100 g, 0.94 mg KOH/g, 1.32 and 0.58%, respectively and significantly (p<0.05) lower in saponification and peroxide values, 155.47 mg KOH/g and 1.06 meq/kg, respectively compared to the values obtained for the PKO. Saturated fatty acid profile of AEO had the values of 9.44, 32.24 and 2.63% for myristic (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and palmitic acid (C16:0) while PKO had the values of 48.00, 16.20, 2.50 and 8.40% for lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and palmitic acid (C16:0), respectively. The monounsaturated fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1) 30.24% for AEO and 15.0% for PKO making oleic acid the highest occurring monounsaturated fatty acids present in AEO. Thus, lauric acid (C12:0) and linoleic (C18:2) was not dictated in AEO while gadoleic (C20:1) was not dictated in PKO. Flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phytates and alkaloids had the values of 0.29, 0.33, 0.13, 0.13 and 0.74% for AEO and 0.32, 0.12, 0.24, 0.11 and 0.07% for PKO, respectively and all were within the acceptable limit of 3% for food products with respect to the phytochemical properties of the oils. The result for solid fat content - temperature profile revealed that PKO and AEO completely melted at 35 °C and 45 °C, respectively.


Keywords: African elemi fruit pulp oil, Palm kernel oil, Iodine value, Melting point, Fatty acid profiles

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How to Cite
Kiin-Kabari, D. B., Umunna, P. S., & Giami, S. Y. (2020). Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of African Elemi Fruit Pulp Oil Compared with Palm Kernel Oil. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(6). https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2020.2.6.149